The International Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulation (ICCR) is “an international group of cosmetic regulatory authorities from the United States (Food and Drug Administration), Japan (Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare), the European Union (European Commission, DG Enterprise), and Canada (Health Canada). This multilateral framework maintains the highest level of global consumer protection, while minimizing barriers to international trade.”
Representatives of four organizations from ICCR member countries, the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), and the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM), and Health Canada “developed a framework to increase international cooperation, collaboration, and communication on alternative test methods.” This framework for international cooperation to promote the development, validation, and acceptance of animal-alternative test methods is the International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods (ICATM).
In addition to the international harmonization efforts of the ICH, there are a number of regional organizations working to harmonize drug regulations. These efforts include: ASEAN (Association of South-East Asian Nations), CAN (Andean Community), CADREAC (The Collaboration Agreement of Drug Regulatory Authorities in European Union Associated Countries), the European Union, Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), MERCOSUR (Southern Common Market), the Pan American Network on Drug Regulatory Harmonization (PANDRH), and the Southern African Development Community (SADC).
The major goal for many of these organizations is to improve access within their regions to safe medicines by harmonization of drug quality, safety, and efficacy standards and guidelines. These harmonization efforts have the potential to reduce the numbers of animals used for drug registration in these countries by resulting in elimination of safety testing procedures that are outdated, duplicative, and/or of limited usefulness, or the introduction of new non-animal methods.
Cosmetics Europe, formerly COLIPA, is the industry’s European trade association. Cosmetics Eurpoe represents the interests of more than 4000 companies through the following member organizations: 16 active international companies, 27 active national associations, 4 supporting association members, 3 supporting corporate members, and 3 correspondent members. “The membership of Cosmetics Europe is committed to continuing development of safe, innovative and effective products. Its mission is to meet consumer desires for new and enhanced products and to provide useful, more comprehensive product information.” Their projects include “funding research into alternatives, promoting consumer education programmes…, encouraging best practice through shared industry expertise, and working to enhance knowledge about the safety profile of ingredients.”
ASEAN Cosmetics Association (ACA) is a trade association of cosmetics organizations from Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand “that aim to harmonize and maintain cosmetics regulations, upgrade the standards of technical competence and scientific expertise in the local industries, and expand the cosmetics trade.”
Personal Care Product Council (PCPC), formerly CTFA, is a trade association for the cosmetic and personal care products industry. “Founded in 1894, the Council represents more than 600 member companies who manufacture, distribute, and supply the vast majority of finished personal care products marketed in the U.S.” The PCPC is “the voice on scientific, legal, regulatory, legislative, and international issues for the personal care product industry,…and a vocal advocate for consumer safety and continued access to new, innovative products.” Like other trade associations, the PCPC also supports initiatives for regulatory harmonization and the removal of trade barriers.
The American Chemistry Council (ACC) is a trade association representing companies engaged in the business of chemistry. The vision of the ACC is to “promote and protect the business of chemistry’s leadership in driving innovation, creating jobs, and enhancing safety in our performance, processes, and products.” An important part of promoting these initiatives is “common sense government policies and regulations.” The ACC is active in the areas of regulatory reform, chemical safety, trade policies, and other areas. They supports relevant science-based policies, and actively represent chemical industry positions on the following types of legislation: Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), environmental regulations, and energy efficiency. The ACC’s Long-Range Research Initiative supports research to catalyze innovations for toxicity testing and exposure science.
The American Cleaning Institute (ACI), formerly the Soap and Detergent Association, represents “producers of household, industrial, and institutional cleaning products, their ingredients and finished packaging; oleochemical producers; and chemical distributors to the cleaning product industry.” The mission of ACI is to “support the sustainability of the cleaning product and oleochemical industries, through research, education, outreach, and science-based advocacy.”
ACI programs include the following:
The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) is a “nonprofit institution whose mission is to engage scientists from academia, government and industry to identify and resolve global health and environmental issues….HESI was established in 1989 as a global branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) to provide an international forum to advance the understanding of scientific issues related to human health, toxicology, risk assessment, and the environment.”
The International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) is an international alliance of chemical companies representing over 75 percent of the chemical manufacturing operations. ICCA promotes and coordinates (i) voluntary chemical industry initiatives such as Responsible Care and (ii) communications between the chemical industry and international organizations involved with health, environmental, and trade issues.
The International Council for Animal Protection in OECD Programmes (ICAPO) is a non-governmental organization established in 2002 to provide formal representation of animal protection interests in certain activities within the test guidelines programme of the OECD. “ICAPO is officially recognized by the OECD as an ‘expert group’ and thereby participates in key OECD meetings.” Goals of ICAPO include promoting greater use of alternative methods and reductions in animal use in OECD testing programs, and incorporation of more alternative methods in OECD Test Guidelines.
ICAPO member organizations include the following: