Warning: Declaration of AVH_Walker_Category_Checklist::walk($elements, $max_depth) should be compatible with Walker::walk($elements, $max_depth, ...$args) in /home/customer/www/alttox.org/public_html/wp-content/plugins/extended-categories-widget/4.2/class/avh-ec.widgets.php on line 62

Warning: Declaration of AVH_Walker_CategoryDropdown::walk($elements, $max_depth) should be compatible with Walker::walk($elements, $max_depth, ...$args) in /home/customer/www/alttox.org/public_html/wp-content/plugins/extended-categories-widget/4.2/class/avh-ec.core.php on line 876

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/customer/www/alttox.org/public_html/wp-content/plugins/extended-categories-widget/4.2/class/avh-ec.widgets.php:0) in /home/customer/www/alttox.org/public_html/wp-content/plugins/sg-cachepress/core/Supercacher/Supercacher_Helper.php on line 77
List of Acronyms | AltTox.org

List of Acronyms

Home / List of Acronyms


List of Acronyms



  • 3D
    three dimensional
  • 3Rs
    replacement, reduction, refinement
    American Association for Laboratory Animal Science
  • ADI
    acceptable daily intake [human]
  • AFIP
    Armed Forces Institute of Pathology
  • AHI
    Animal Health Institute (US)
  • AIDS
    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
  • ANDA
    Abbreviated New Drug Application (US FDA)
  • AOP
    Adverse Outcome Pathway
    Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA)
  • ARDF
    Alternatives Research and Development Foundation
  • ATLA
    Alternatives to Laboratory Animals
    Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (US CDC)
  • BBMO
    Biosensors Based on Membrane Organization to Replace Animal Testing
  • BCOP
    Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability assay
  • BfR
    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment
  • BLA
    Biological License Application (US FDA)
  • BRD
    Background Review Document (ICCVAM)
  • BSC
    Board of Scientific Counselors (US NTP)
  • BSE
    Bovine Spongiform Encephalitis
  • CAAI
    University of California Center for Animal Alternatives Information
  • CAAT
    Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing
    Chorioallantoic Membrane Vascularization Assay
  • CBER
    Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (US FDA)
  • CDC
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US)
  • CDER
    Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (US FDA)
  • CDRH
    Center for Devices and Radiological Health (US FDA)
    Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (US NTP)
  • CFR
    Code of Federal Regulations (US)
    Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (US FDA)
  • CHMP
    Committees for Medicinal Products for Human Use
  • CMR
    carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic
  • CO2
    Carbon Dioxide
    European Cosmetic Toiletry & Perfumery Association
  • COMP
    Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products
    Community Research & Development Information Service
    European Reference Laboratory for Alternative Tests
  • CPCP
    Chemical Prioritization Community of Practice (US EPA)
  • CPSC
    Consumer Product Safety Commission (US)
  • CTA
    Cell Transformation Assays
  • CVB
    Center for Veterinary Biologics (USDA)
  • CVM
    Center for Veterinary Medicine (US FDA)
  • CVMP
    Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use
    Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (US)
  • DG
    Directorate General
  • DOD
    Department of Defense (US)
  • DOT
    Department of Transportation (US)
  • DRP
    Detailed Review Paper (OECD)
  • EC
    European Commission
  • ECB
    European Chemicals Bureau
  • ECHA
    European Chemicals Agency
    European Consensus Platform for Alternatives
    European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods
  • ED
    endocrine disrupters
  • EDQM
    European Directorate for Quality of Medicines & HealthCare
  • EEC
    European Economic Commission
    European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations
  • EFSA
    European Food Safety Authority
    European Food Safety Authority Panel on plant protection products and their residues
  • EFTA
    European Free Trade Association
    European List of Notified Chemical Substances
    Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay
  • EMEA
    European Medicines Agency
  • ENVI
    European Parliament Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety
  • EO
    Executive Orders (US)
  • EPA
    Environmental Protection Agency (US)
  • EPAA
    European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing
    Scientific Advisory Committee (EU)
    Economic and Social Council (UN)
  • EU
    European Union
    European Union Reference Laboratory on Alternatives to Animal Testing
  • EWG
    expert working group


  • FAO
    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
  • FDA
    Food and Drug Administration (US)
    Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (US)
  • FHSA
    Federal Hazardous Substances Act (US)
    Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (US)
  • FP
    framework program
    Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments
  • GCCP
    good cell culture practice
  • GCP
    good clinical practice
  • GHS
    Globally Harmonized System for Classification and Labeling of Chemicals
  • GJIC
    gap junction intercellular communication [assay]
  • GLP
    good laboratory practice
  • GMO
    genetically modified organism
  • GMP
    good manufacturing practice
  • GPMT
    Guinea Pig Maximization Test
  • HCE, HCE-T
    human corneal epithelial cells
  • HESI
    ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute
    Hen’s Egg Test – Chorioallantoic Membrane assay
  • HHS
    Department of Health and Human Services (US)
  • HIV
    Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  • HMPC
    Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products
  • HPV
    High Production Volume
  • HSUS
    The Humane Society of the United States
  • HTS
    high throughput screening
  • HGP
    Human Genome Project
  • IARC
    International Agency for Research on Cancer (WHO)
    International Council for Animal Protection in OECD
    Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (US)
  • ICE
    isolated chicken eye
  • ICH
    International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use
  • ICSC
    International Chemical Safety Cards
    International Federation for Animal Health Europe
    International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers & Associations
  • IIVS
    Institute for In Vitro Sciences
  • ILAR
    Institute for Laboratory Animal Research
  • ILO
    International Labour Organization
  • ILSI
    International Life Sciences Institute
  • IND
    investigational new drug (US FDA)
    International Society for In Vitro Methods
  • IOMC
    Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (WHO)
  • IPCS
    International Programme on Chemical Safety (WHO)
  • IQF
    International QSAR Foundation to Reduce Animal Testing
  • IRB
    institutional review board
  • IRE
    isolated rabbit eye
  • IWG
    Immunotoxicity Working Group (ICCVAM)
  • JaCVAM
    Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods
  • JAVB
    Japanese Association of Veterinary Biologics
    Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives
    Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
  • JPMA
    Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association
  • JRC
    Joint Research Centre (EU)
    Japanese Society for Alternatives to Animal Experiments
  • JVPA
    Japanese Veterinary Products Association


  • KoCVAM
    Korean Center for the Validation of Alternative Method
  • Liintop
    Liver Intestine Optimization
  • LLNA
    Local Lymph Node Assay
  • MAD
    Mutual Acceptance of Data (OECD)
  • MEIC
    Multicenter Evaluation of In Vitro Cytotoxicity
  • MEMO
    MEIC monographs on time-related human lethal blood concentrations
  • MEPs
    Members of the European Parliament
  • mg
    milligrams [a unit of weight]
  • MHLW
    Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (Japan)
  • MLI
    Molecular Libraries Initiative (US NIH)
  • MSDS
    Material Safety Data Sheets
  • MW
    molecular weight
  • Nc3Rs
    UK National Center for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research
  • NCBI
    National Center for Biotechnology Information (US)
  • NCEH
    National Center for Environmental Health (US CDC)
  • NCGC
    NIH Chemical Genomics Center (US)
  • NCI
    National Cancer Institute (US NIH)
    National Center for Preparedness, Detection and Control of Infectious Diseases
  • NCCT
    National Center for Computational Toxicology (US EPA)
  • NCTR
    National Center for Toxicological Research (US FDA)
  • NDA
    new drug application (US FDA)
  • NGO
    non-governmental organization
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
  • NICA
    Nordic Information Center for Alternative Methods
    National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (US)
    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (US NIH)
  • NIH
    National Institutes of Health (US)
  • NIHS
    National Institute of Health Sciences (Japan)
    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (US CDC)
  • NITR
    National Institute of Toxicological Research (Korea)
    no-observed adverse effect level
  • NOEL
    no-observed effect level
    National Pollution Prevention and Toxics Advisory Committee (US EPA)
  • NRC
    National Research Council
  • NTP
    National Toxicology Program (US)
  • OECD
    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
  • OMCLs
    Official Medicines Control Laboratories
    Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (US EPA)
  • ORF
    open reading frame
  • OSHA
    Occupational Safety and Health Administration (US)
    Optimized Strategies for Risk Assessment of Industrial Chemicals through the Integration of Non-test and Test Information
  • OTC
    over-the-counter [drug]


  • PBPK
    physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (modeling)
  • P&G
    Procter & Gamble
  • PhRMA
    Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America
  • PL
    public law
  • POPs
    Persistent Organic Pollutants
  • (Q)SAR
    (Quantitative) Structure Activity Relationship
  • QSM
    Quality, Safety and Efficacy of Medicines (WHO)
  • RA
    regulatory acceptance
    Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals
  • RHE
    reconstructed human epidermis
  • RIPs
    REACH Implementation Projects
  • RNAi
    RNA interference
  • rLLNA
    reduced Local Lymph Node Assay
    Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (US)
    Strategic Approach to International Chemical Management (WHO)
    Health and Consumer Protection Directorate General
    Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare
  • SCCP
    Scientific Committee on Consumer Products
    Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks
    Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health
    Standing Committee on Health and Environmental Risks
  • SEPs
    Special Emphasis Panels (US NTP)
  • SIDS
    Screening Information Data Sets
  • SOT
    Society of Toxicology
    Strategic Partnership on REACH Testing
  • TBD
    to be determined
  • TDG
    Transport of Dangerous Goods (UN committee)
  • TER
    transcutaneous electrical resistance
  • TEWG
    Technical Expert Working Group
  • TG
    Test Guideline (OECD)
  • ToBI
    toxin binding inhibition
  • TSCA
    Toxic Substances Control Act (US)
  • TTC
    threshold of toxicological concern


  • UC
    University of California
  • UCD
    University of California Davis
  • UK
    United Kingdom
  • UN
    United Nations
    United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
  • UNEP
    United Nations Environment Programme
    United Nations Institute for Training and Research
    US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense
    US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases
    US Army Medical Research and Material Command
  • USDA
    United States Department of Agriculture
    Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
  • UV
    Voluntary Children’s Chemical Evaluation Program US EPA)
  • VICH
    International Cooperation on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Products
  • WHO
    World Health Organization
    Walter Reed Army Institute of Research
    Centre for Documentation and Evaluation of Alternative Methods to Animal Experiments (Germany)