Many countries have laws that require researchers to search for Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement alternatives (the 3Rs) prior to using protocols that involve the use of animals. AltTox provides information and resources that are useful for this purpose.
The Existing Alternatives sections of AltTox provide a readily accessible list of non-animal toxicity test methods and protocols that are considered valid according to accepted international criteria.
The list of endpoints in the right-hand column of this page links to information on validated, non-animal toxicity test methods for different human health endpoints.
The test methods listed in these sections have been judged to be scientifically valid by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM), and/or the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
Although the OECD encourages validation of a test method prior to its adoption as a Test Guideline (TG), validation is not a prerequisite for TG adoption. OECD TGs are generally accepted worldwide as relevant methods for evaluating human health toxicity endpoints, and are the methods accepted under the Globally Harmonized System for Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS). Accordingly, we list the in vitro test methods incorporated into OECD TGs, even when they may not be considered to have been formally validated (e.g., dermal penetration).
A comprehensive table of validated and regulatory-accepted alternative test methods (in vivo and in vitro) is also provided in the following section of AltTox: Table of Validated and Accepted Alternative Methods.
The Searching for Non-animal Toxicity Test Methods section provides links to other organizations and databases with information on alternative toxicity test methods.