Other Literature/Websites

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Other Literature & Websites

Last updated: November 21, 2015

Additional sources of information on scientific and policy issues relevant to the development and use of non-animal test methods.

3R Guide

Alternative Methods-focused Websites

3R Research Foundation Bulletin and News



Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT)

CCAC Three Rs Search Guide

Dr Hadwen Trust

ECVAM Database Service on Alternative Methods to Animal Experimentation (DB-ALM)

eTox: seven-year consortium project funded by Innovative Medicines Initiative aiming to develop drug safety database, innovative in silico strategies, and novel software tools to better predict toxicological profiles of small molecules in early stages of drug development; eTox Library: http://cadd.imim.es/etox-library

European Union Reference Laboratory for alternatives to animal testing (EURL ECVAM)

European Consensus Platform for Alternatives (ECOPA)

European Society of Toxicology In Vitro (ESTIV)

European Commission Sixth Framework Programme (FP6) websites:

ACuteTox: project for developing in vitro methods to predict human acute toxicity

carcinoGENOMICS: project for developing in vitro methods to assess the carcinogenic potential of compounds

COMICS: project for developing in vitro Comet assay and cell arrays for screening chemicals for potential genotoxic and cytotoxic effects

EXERA: project for the development of 3D in vitro models of estrogen-reporter mouse tissues for pharmaco-toxicological analysis of nuclear receptors-interacting compounds

Forinvitox: project for promoting the transfer of alternative tests into products for end users

INVITROHEART: project for developing stable human cardiomyocyte cell lines and in vitro human models for pharmaceutical and toxicology testing

Mitocheck: systematic analysis of genes and proteins required for chromosome segregation and cell division in human cells (FP6: 2004-09)

NHR DEVTOX: project for conducting a prospective analysis of the role and mechanisms of nuclear hormone receptors in developmental and reproductive biology and determining their potential for this application

OSIRIS: project for optimized strategies for risk assessment of industrial chemicals through integration of non-test and test information

ReProTect: project for developing an integrated set of tests for assessing reproductive/ developmental toxicity

Sens-it-iv: project for developing in vitro methods to assess potential lung or skin sensitizers

European Commission Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) websites:

AXLR8: project to increase networking, information exchange, problem solving, and collaboration among scientific disciplines and stakeholder groups to accelerate the transition to a toxicity pathway-based paradigm for chemical safety assessment

CADASTER: case studies on the Development and Application of In Silico Techniques for Environmental hazard and Risk assessment

COACH: cluster level coordination and support for SEURAT-1

COSMOS: integrated in silico models for the prediction of human repeated dose toxicity of COSMetics to Optimise Safety; part of SEURAT-1 cluster

CREAM: network of partner institutions working to develop ecological models for the risk assessment of chemicals, primarily pesticides

DETECTIVE: detection of endpoints and biomarkers of repeated dose toxicity using in vitro systems; part of SEURAT-1 cluster

diXa Project: Data Infrastructure for Chemical Safety

EnviroGenomarkers (also see EnviroGenomarkers at Imperial College)

ESNATS Project: project for developing a novel all-in-one toxicity test platform based on embryonic stem cells to accelerate drug development and provide an alternative to animal tests

EUROECOTOX: integration of European activities on the replacement and reduction of animal experiments in ecotoxicology

HeMiBio: Hepatic Microfluidic Bioreactor; part of SEURAT-1 cluster

HEROIC: project to integrate knowledge across human and environmental risk assessment; developed TOX-HUB Platform: http://www.heroic-fp7.eu/en/content/TOX-HUB-platform.5/

MARINA: project to develop and validate the risk management methods for nanomaterials

MitoSys: extending MitoCheck (FP6) research on mitosis using systems biology perspective (FP7: 2010-2015)

MODERN Modeling Nanotoxicity: project to understand processes governing the interactions of environmental nanoparticles with biological systems for safety assessments

NANoREG: project to develop common European approach to the regulatory testing of nanomaterials

NanoTEST: project for alternative testing strategies for the assessment the toxicological profile of nanoparticles used in medical diagnostics

NOTOX: predicting long-term toxic effects using computer models based on systems characterization of organotypic cultures; part of SEURAT-1 cluster

OpenTox: website platform intended to support the development and validation of in silico models and algorithms and their integration with other alternative test methods

Predict-IV: project to develop strategies for assessing drug safety by an intelligent combination of non animal-based test systems, cell biology, mechanistic toxicology and in silico modelling

SCR&Tox: Stem Cells for Relevant efficient extended and normalized Toxicology; part of SEURAT-1 cluster

SEURAT-1: collaboration of 6 research projects with the goal of developing knowledge and technology to replace in vivo repeated dose systemic toxicity testing with non-animal methods

ToxBank: supporting integrated data analysis and servicing of alternative testing methods in toxicology; part of SEURAT-1 cluster

VITROCELLOMICS: project for developing stable cell lines and in vitro human liver models for preclinical drug testing by the pharmaceutical industry

European Commission Horizon 2020-funded project websites:

EDC-MixRisk: project focusing on effects of chemical mixtures and on endocrine disruptive chemicals

Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME)

Go3R: search engine for locating information on replacement, reduction, and refinement alternative methods

Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM)

Institute for In Vitro Sciences, Inc. (IIVS)

In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP)

National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs)

Norecopa (Norway’s Consensus-Platform for Replacement, Reduction and Refinement of Animal Experiments)

QSARs and REACH, A Guide to Sources of Information and Advice: resource of tools, information sources, and experts compiled by PETA UK

Tracking System for Alternative test methods Review, Validation and Approval in the context of EU Regulations on Chemicals (TSAR): Joint Research Center of the European Commission website for tracking the validation status of alternative methods

University of California-Davis Center for Animal Alternatives Information

Centre for Documentation and Evaluation of Alternative Methods to Animal Experiments (ZEBET), Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), Germany

Centre for Alternative and Complementary Methods to Animal Testing (ZET), Austria

Scientific Websites/Glossaries

ACS Interactive Periodic Table of the Elements

Allen Brain Atlas: resource for research, news, and events in neuroscience and genomics

Biology Online: biology wiki, a resource for biology related information; biology forum, biology discussion boards

Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia: genetic and molecular information for nearly 1,000 cancer cell lines; provides public access analysis and visualization of DNA copy number, mRNA expression and mutation data for about 1000 cell lines. Published results: Barretina, et al. (2012). The Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia enables predictive modelling of anticancer drug sensitivity.

CIRM, California’s Stem Cell Agency: information and funding to accelerate clinical stem cell treatments; includes The Stem Cellar blog

Closer Look at Stem Cells: Sponsored by the International Society for Stem Cell Research to promote “education in all areas of stem cell research and medical application”; includes Stem Cells in Focus blog

DevTox: resource for researchers in developmental toxicology; includes harmonized nomenclature and a database of images

Ecotoxicology & Models: information and resources related to ecotoxicology and modeling, including: toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic modeling; applications in risk assessment of chemicals; and links to ecotoxicology models, software, databases, publications, and people

Epigenomics resources, databases, and tools

EurekAlert!: online science, medicine, and technology research news service operated by AAAS

European Science Foundation (ESF)

Immunogenicity Knowledge Base

Lundbeck Institute Brain Atlas

Merck’s Interactive Periodic Table of the Elements

National Academy of Sciences

National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC)

Omics Gateway

Periodic Table Live

RSC Periodic Table

PubPeer: online community where scientists can comment on most published scientific articles


Stem Cell Research News


Toxipedia: wiki-website for toxicology and other public health professional to share information with other professionals and the public

Government Websites/Information

Chemicals Policy Initiative: An organization formed to advance policy debate on reforming chemicals policy in the United States; their website contains information and resources on US Federal and state chemicals policy, as well as chemicals policy in Canada, Latin America, Europe, Africa, and Asia-Pacific regions

Community Research & Development Information Service (CORDIS): European research & development and innovation activities

Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network: collaborative effort established by National Institute of Diabetes and Kidney Diseases to develop nationwide registry of human drug-induced liver injury cases

EPA Chemical Safety

EPA’s Pesticide Program

FDA National Center for Toxicological Research: NCTR research and bioinformatics tools

Federal Register: official daily publication for rules, proposed rules, and notices of US Federal agencies and organizations, as well as executive orders and other presidential documents

Human Health Risk and Environmental Analysis Group at ORNL: US Department of Energy research and news

Legislative Information US: from The Library of Congress

US National Institutes of Health (NIH)

NIH Stem Cell Information

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

National Science Foundation

Research*EU Results magazine

Risk Assessment Information System: risk assessment information and tools from US Department of Energy

Science.gov: science information provided by US government agencies

Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program at National Library of Medicine: access to databases (including TOXNET®), bibliographies, tutorials, and other scientific and consumer-oriented resources

Technical Reports

6th World Congress Abstracts

Chemical Inspection and Regulation Service (CIRS): international regulatory compliance publications

ECETOC: industry-funded think tank providing technical reports, monographs, JACC Reports (comprehensive reviews of toxicological and ecotoxicological data on individual chemical substances), scientific briefing papers, and other publications

Environmental Risk Assessment and Management (ERASM): study and workshop reports, position papers, and other publications; platform of European detergent and surfactants producers associations

European Commission JRC reports and publications related to “Alternatives to animal testing and safety assessment of chemicals” include the following:

  • Ex-post evaluation of the direct actions of the Joint Research Centre under the Seventh Framework Programmes 2007-2013 (2015, JRC96870)
  • EURL ECVAM status report on the development, validation and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods and approaches (2015, JRC97811)
  • Scientific methodologies for the assessment of combined effects of chemicals – a survey and literature review (2015, JRC97522)
  • Review of the availability of in vitro and in silico methods for assessing dermal bioavailability (2015, JRC95359)
  • Chemical safety assessment using read-across: Assessing the use of novel testing methods to strengthen the evidence base for decision making (2014, JRC94006)
  • Assessment of mixtures – Review of regulatory requirements and guidance (2014, JRC90601)
  • Considerations in the development of in vitro toxicity testing methods intended for regulatory use (2014, JRC89747)
  • Alternative methods for regulatory toxicology – A state-of-the-art review (2014, JRC91361)
  • In vitro toxicology systems (2014, JRC87460)
  • Adverse outcome pathway-based screening strategies for an animal-free safety assessment of chemicals (2013, JRC84925)
  • Toxicity Pathways – from concepts to application in chemical safety assessment (2013)
  • The EURL ECVAM Search Guide: Good search practice to animal alternatives (2013, JRC88200)

National Academies Press, National Academies of Sciences reports:

Regulations on Safe Management of Hazardous Chemicals in China (2011) (CIRS)

Serum-Free Media for Cell Culture: spreadsheet

Skin Care Forum

Stem Cells in Predictive Toxicology: 35-page report based on workshop held July 2008 by the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM), the California agency devoted to stem cell research

WTO Documents Online: access to over 100,000 official documents of the World Trade Organization in the three official languages from 1995 onwards; updated daily

Other Informational Websites

Acronym Finder

The British Library

EurActiv: European news and policy issues

Google Scholar

Google Translate

Universal Currency Converter

US Library of Congress

US National Library of Medicine

Wikipedia: encyclopedia of user generated information

The World Clock: time zone converter

Worldometer: world statistics updated in real time

WWW Virtual Library

Patent Searches

European Patent Office


Google Patent Search

Japan Patent Office

Stem Cell Patents

United States Patent and Trademark Office Electronic Business Center

Newsletters/E-mail Alerts

AltTox Digest

Altweb News

ATCC Cell Passages

EPA’s Chemical Safety for Sustainability Quarterly Research Update

EC’s JRC Newsletter

ECETOC e-Newsletter

ECHA e-News

EDQM newsletter

EPA news releases: subscriptions; search

FRAME News newsletter

IIVS Newsletter

NAS Emerging Science for Environmental Health Decisions newsletters

  • Computational Toxicology: From Data Analyses to Applications
  • Cumulative Risk Assessment for Environmental Mixtures: New Approaches Based on Pathways
  • Epigenetics: Use of Emerging Science and Technologies to Explore Epigenetic Mechanisms Underlying the Developmental Basis for Disease
  • The Exposome: A Powerful Approach for Evaluating Environmental Exposures and Their Influences on Human Disease
  • Stem Cells: Stem Cell Models for Environmental Health
  • The Potential of the Tissue Chip for Environmental Health Studies
  • and more…

NC3Rs e-newsletter


NIEHS, Environmental Factor


NTP News Updates

OECD Environment Health and Safety News

Science for Environment Policy, DG Environment News Alert Service

SOT Communiqué

SOT In Vitro and Alternative Methods Specialty Section newsletters

Stemgent Times eNewsletter

USDA APHIS Stakeholder Registry e-mail updates


Alternative Toxicological Methods for the New Millennium (2003): Sidney A. Katz and Harry Salem (editors), CRC Press

Assay Guidance Manual (2004): open access eBook providing guidance for developing high-throughput screening (HTS) assays to identify probes that modulate activity of biological targets, pathways, and/or cellular phenotypes

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press: scientific books and journals

Encyclopedia of Toxicology, 3rd ed. (2014)

Human-based Systems for Translational Research (2015): Robert Coleman (editor)

In Vitro Toxicology Systems (2014): Anna Bal-Price and Paul Jennings (editors)

Reducing, Refining and Replacing the Use of Animals in Toxicity Testing (2013): David Allen and Mike D. Waters (editors)

Regulatory Toxicology: Franz-Xaver Reichl and Michael Schwenk (editors)

Statistical Methods for Evaluating Safety in Medical Product Development (2015): A. Lawrence Gould (editor); includes chapters on analysis in QSAR modeling, Phase 1 trials, cardiovascular toxicity, hepatotoxicity

The Dictionary of Cell & Molecular Biology, 5th Edition (2013): John M. Lackie (editor)

The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique (1959; special edition 1992): by Russell and Burch