In many countries, scientists are required to conduct a thorough literature search for alternative methods prior to using animals in research and testing. The following websites, articles, and databases contain useful information on animal alternative methods.
3R Research Foundation: 3R Info Bulletins
ALTEX article Alternatives to Animal Experimentation in Basic Research (2004)
AltTox (in addition to resources listed on this page): Table of Validated and Accepted Alternative Methods; Existing Non-animal Alternatives; Test Methods/Protocols; Alternatives Websites; Databases; Journals
Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC) 3Rs Search Guide
EPAA-supported article Cross-sector review of drivers and available 3Rs approaches for acute systemic toxicity testing by Seidle, et al. (2010)
DB-ALM ECVAM Database Service on Alternative Methods to Animal Experimentation; TSAR: Tracking System for Alternative test methods Review, Validation and Approval in the Context of EU Regulations on Chemicals; ECVAM Search Guide: Good Search Practice on Animal Alternatives
Information Managers in the Pharmaceutical Industry report: Searching for 3Rs Information – Published Literature Sources (2002)
NC3Rs: NC3Rs Information Portal; Acute toxicity testing of chemicals: opportunities to avoid redundant testing and use alternative approaches by Creton, et al. (2010)
SCCS Guidance on the Safety Assessment of Nanomaterials in Cosmetics (June 2012):considerations for testing nanomaterials, especially regarding the EU testing ban
UCDavis Center for Animal Alternatives Information, Literature Search for Alternatives Worksheet
UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and UK REACH Competent Authority guidance: REACH – Minimisation of Animal Testing (2010)
USDA Animal Welfare Information Center: Literature Searching and Databases; Worksheet and Instructions for Alternatives Literature Searching (2009); The Use of Databases, Information Centers and Guidelines When Planning Research That May Involve Animals (2005); Searching Bibliographic Databases for Alternatives (2006); National Agricultural Library AGRICOLA Catalog
ZEBET (Centre for Documentation and Evaluation of Alternative Methods to Animal Experiments, Germany): AnimAlt-ZEBET database
Searching animal studies can prevent unnecessary duplication and thus unnecessary animal use (Reduction). The following sources could provide some useful guidance.
Hooijmans, et al., Radboud University, Central Animal Laboratory and 3R Research Centre articles:
3Rs – Reduction.co.uk: interactive short course on experimental design for research scientists working with laboratory animals with aim to reduce number of animals used. Certification form is available for animal technicians to provide to ethical review committees, IACUCs, and laboratory supervisors.