List of Acronyms

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List of Acronyms

0-EF-JK-OP-TU-Z

0-E

  • 3D
    three dimensional
  • 3Rs
    replacement, reduction, refinement
  • AALAS
    American Association for Laboratory Animal Science
  • ADI
    acceptable daily intake [human]
  • AFIP
    Armed Forces Institute of Pathology
  • AHI
    Animal Health Institute (US)
  • AIDS
    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
  • ANDA
    Abbreviated New Drug Application (US FDA)
  • AOP
    Adverse Outcome Pathway
  • APHIS
    Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA)
  • ARDF
    Alternatives Research and Development Foundation
  • ATLA
    Alternatives to Laboratory Animals
  • ATSDR
    Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (US CDC)
  • BBMO
    Biosensors Based on Membrane Organization to Replace Animal Testing
  • BCOP
    Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability assay
  • BfR
    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment
  • BLA
    Biological License Application (US FDA)
  • BRD
    Background Review Document (ICCVAM)
  • BSC
    Board of Scientific Counselors (US NTP)
  • BSE
    Bovine Spongiform Encephalitis
  • CAAI
    University of California Center for Animal Alternatives Information
  • CAAT
    Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing
  • CAMVA
    Chorioallantoic Membrane Vascularization Assay
  • CBER
    Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (US FDA)
  • CDC
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US)
  • CDER
    Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (US FDA)
  • CDRH
    Center for Devices and Radiological Health (US FDA)
  • CERHR
    Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (US NTP)
  • CFR
    Code of Federal Regulations (US)
  • CFSAN
    Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (US FDA)
  • CHMP
    Committees for Medicinal Products for Human Use
  • CMR
    carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic
  • CO2
    Carbon Dioxide
  • COLIPA
    European Cosmetic Toiletry & Perfumery Association
  • COMP
    Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products
  • CORDIS
    Community Research & Development Information Service
  • CORRELATE
    European Reference Laboratory for Alternative Tests
  • CPCP
    Chemical Prioritization Community of Practice (US EPA)
  • CPSC
    Consumer Product Safety Commission (US)
  • CTA
    Cell Transformation Assays
  • CVB
    Center for Veterinary Biologics (USDA)
  • CVM
    Center for Veterinary Medicine (US FDA)
  • CVMP
    Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use
  • DARPA
    Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (US)
  • DG
    Directorate General
  • DOD
    Department of Defense (US)
  • DOT
    Department of Transportation (US)
  • DRP
    Detailed Review Paper (OECD)
  • EC
    European Commission
  • ECB
    European Chemicals Bureau
  • ECHA
    European Chemicals Agency
  • ECOPA
    European Consensus Platform for Alternatives
  • ECVAM
    European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods
  • ED
    endocrine disrupters
  • EDQM
    European Directorate for Quality of Medicines & HealthCare
  • EEC
    European Economic Commission
  • EFPIA
    European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations
  • EFSA
    European Food Safety Authority
  • EFSA PPR
    European Food Safety Authority Panel on plant protection products and their residues
  • EFTA
    European Free Trade Association
  • ELINCS
    European List of Notified Chemical Substances
  • ELISA
    Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay
  • EMEA
    European Medicines Agency
  • ENVI
    European Parliament Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety
  • EO
    Executive Orders (US)
  • EPA
    Environmental Protection Agency (US)
  • EPAA
    European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing
  • ESACECVAM
    Scientific Advisory Committee (EU)
  • ESOCOC
    Economic and Social Council (UN)
  • EU
    European Union
  • EURL ECVAM
    European Union Reference Laboratory on Alternatives to Animal Testing
  • EWG
    expert working group

F-J

  • FAO
    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
  • FDA
    Food and Drug Administration (US)
  • FFDCA
    Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (US)
  • FHSA
    Federal Hazardous Substances Act (US)
  • FIFRA
    Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (US)
  • FP
    framework program
  • FRAME
    Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments
  • GCCP
    good cell culture practice
  • GCP
    good clinical practice
  • GHS
    Globally Harmonized System for Classification and Labeling of Chemicals
  • GJIC
    gap junction intercellular communication [assay]
  • GLP
    good laboratory practice
  • GMO
    genetically modified organism
  • GMP
    good manufacturing practice
  • GPMT
    Guinea Pig Maximization Test
  • HCE, HCE-T
    human corneal epithelial cells
  • HESI
    ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute
  • HET-CAM
    Hen’s Egg Test – Chorioallantoic Membrane assay
  • HHS
    Department of Health and Human Services (US)
  • HIV
    Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  • HMPC
    Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products
  • HPV
    High Production Volume
  • HSUS
    The Humane Society of the United States
  • HTS
    high throughput screening
  • HGP
    Human Genome Project
  • IARC
    International Agency for Research on Cancer (WHO)
  • ICAPO
    International Council for Animal Protection in OECD
  • ICCVAM
    Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (US)
  • ICE
    isolated chicken eye
  • ICH
    International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use
  • ICSC
    International Chemical Safety Cards
  • IFAH-EUROPE
    International Federation for Animal Health Europe
  • IFPMA
    International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers & Associations
  • IIVS
    Institute for In Vitro Sciences
  • ILAR
    Institute for Laboratory Animal Research
  • ILO
    International Labour Organization
  • ILSI
    International Life Sciences Institute
  • IND
    investigational new drug (US FDA)
  • INVITROM
    International Society for In Vitro Methods
  • IOMC
    Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (WHO)
  • IPCS
    International Programme on Chemical Safety (WHO)
  • IQF
    International QSAR Foundation to Reduce Animal Testing
  • IRB
    institutional review board
  • IRE
    isolated rabbit eye
  • IWG
    Immunotoxicity Working Group (ICCVAM)
  • JaCVAM
    Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods
  • JAVB
    Japanese Association of Veterinary Biologics
  • JECFA
    Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives
  • JMAFF
    Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
  • JPMA
    Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association
  • JRC
    Joint Research Centre (EU)
  • JSAAE
    Japanese Society for Alternatives to Animal Experiments
  • JVPA
    Japanese Veterinary Products Association

K-O

  • KoCVAM
    Korean Center for the Validation of Alternative Method
  • Liintop
    Liver Intestine Optimization
  • LLNA
    Local Lymph Node Assay
  • MAD
    Mutual Acceptance of Data (OECD)
  • MEIC
    Multicenter Evaluation of In Vitro Cytotoxicity
  • MEMO
    MEIC monographs on time-related human lethal blood concentrations
  • MEPs
    Members of the European Parliament
  • mg
    milligrams [a unit of weight]
  • MHLW
    Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (Japan)
  • MLI
    Molecular Libraries Initiative (US NIH)
  • MSDS
    Material Safety Data Sheets
  • MW
    molecular weight
  • Nc3Rs
    UK National Center for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research
  • NKCA
    Netherlands Knowledge Centre on Alternatives to animal use
  • NCBI
    National Center for Biotechnology Information (US)
  • NCEH
    National Center for Environmental Health (US CDC)
  • NCGC
    NIH Chemical Genomics Center (US)
  • NCI
    National Cancer Institute (US NIH)
  • NCPDCID
    National Center for Preparedness, Detection and Control of Infectious Diseases
  • NCCT
    National Center for Computational Toxicology (US EPA)
  • NCTR
    National Center for Toxicological Research (US FDA)
  • NDA
    new drug application (US FDA)
  • NGO
    non-governmental organization
  • NIAID
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
  • NICA
    Nordic Information Center for Alternative Methods
  • NICEATM
    National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (US)
  • NIEHS
    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (US NIH)
  • NIH
    National Institutes of Health (US)
  • NIHS
    National Institute of Health Sciences (Japan)
  • NIOSH
    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (US CDC)
  • NITR
    National Institute of Toxicological Research (Korea)
  • NOAEL
    no-observed adverse effect level
  • NOEL
    no-observed effect level
  • NPPTAC
    National Pollution Prevention and Toxics Advisory Committee (US EPA)
  • NRC
    National Research Council
  • NTP
    National Toxicology Program (US)
  • OECD
    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
  • OMCLs
    Official Medicines Control Laboratories
  • OPPTS
    Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (US EPA)
  • ORF
    open reading frame
  • OSHA
    Occupational Safety and Health Administration (US)
  • OSIRIS
    Optimized Strategies for Risk Assessment of Industrial Chemicals through the Integration of Non-test and Test Information
  • OTC
    over-the-counter [drug]

P-T

  • PBPK
    physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (modeling)
  • P&G
    Procter & Gamble
  • PhRMA
    Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America
  • PL
    public law
  • POPs
    Persistent Organic Pollutants
  • (Q)SAR
    (Quantitative) Structure Activity Relationship
  • QSM
    Quality, Safety and Efficacy of Medicines (WHO)
  • RA
    regulatory acceptance
  • REACH
    Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals
  • RHE
    reconstructed human epidermis
  • RIPs
    REACH Implementation Projects
  • RNAi
    RNA interference
  • rLLNA
    reduced Local Lymph Node Assay
  • SACATM
    Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (US)
  • SAICM
    Strategic Approach to International Chemical Management (WHO)
  • SANCO
    Health and Consumer Protection Directorate General
  • SCAHAW
    Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare
  • SCCP
    Scientific Committee on Consumer Products
  • SCENIHR
    Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks
  • SCFCAH
    Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health
  • SCHER
    Standing Committee on Health and Environmental Risks
  • SEPs
    Special Emphasis Panels (US NTP)
  • SIDS
    Screening Information Data Sets
  • SOT
    Society of Toxicology
  • SPORT
    Strategic Partnership on REACH Testing
  • TBD
    to be determined
  • TDG
    Transport of Dangerous Goods (UN committee)
  • TER
    transcutaneous electrical resistance
  • TEWG
    Technical Expert Working Group
  • TG
    Test Guideline (OECD)
  • ToBI
    toxin binding inhibition
  • TSCA
    Toxic Substances Control Act (US)
  • TTC
    threshold of toxicological concern

U-Z

  • UC
    University of California
  • UCD
    University of California Davis
  • UK
    United Kingdom
  • UN
    United Nations
  • UNECE
    United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
  • UNEP
    United Nations Environment Programme
  • UNITAR
    United Nations Institute for Training and Research
  • USAMRICD
    US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense
  • USAMRIID
    US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases
  • USAMRMC
    US Army Medical Research and Material Command
  • USDA
    United States Department of Agriculture
  • USUHS
    Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
  • UV
    ultraviolet
  • VCCEP
    Voluntary Children’s Chemical Evaluation Program US EPA)
  • VICH
    International Cooperation on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Products
  • WHO
    World Health Organization
  • WRAIR
    Walter Reed Army Institute of Research
  • ZEBET
    Centre for Documentation and Evaluation of Alternative Methods to Animal Experiments (Germany)